Tuesday, July 28, 2009

to be continued

Q. The animosity between the arabs and jews goes back centuries. Am I wrong?

A. Yes, you’re wrong in the way you seem to see it as a mutual animosity. Jews lived as an oppressed minority in the Arab lands for 1400 years after Islam was founded until the founding of Israel when 900,000 Jews fled the Arab lands. 600,000 of these Jews immigrated to Israel. The Jewish communities in the Arab lands for 1400 years after Islam started didn’t have the luxury of feeling animosity towards their Muslim overlords. If a Jew held his hand over his face to protect it from Muslim spit, the hand was cut off as a punishment for “aggression.” So Jews let themselves be spit upon. In Egypt, people used to talk about how Muslim children would throw little rocks at the Jews as they passed — so the Jews walked quickly. It’s not peer-to-peer animosity when one group is just trying to stay alive while under the thumb of the other group. When the 600,000 Jews from the Arab Muslim lands immigrated to Israel, they fell wildly in love with their new freedom. They didn’t care about the overlords they’d left behind (except for when the overlords sent armies to push them into the sea at various times). See what I mean?
It's likely that most people are not aware of the Grand Mufti's involvement with Hitler and the Nazi's. Hitler and the Grand Mufti - filmed footage
History in Maps

Science and Technology in Israel

It's sad how just how many people there are who have good intentions and push the disinvestment agenda against Israel without knowing facts and history. To believe you are well informed about the Middles East by reading headlines is hardly a reliable source of information. As it is, most news coming out of the Middle East are from Islamic news wires. (add sources here)
The US doesn't just hand over money to Israel for nothing in return. Nations all over the world work together and fund joint projects. For example:
State of Israel is involved in joint research funds with many countries. These funds require collaborative projects between researchers from the respective countries.

A small list of  International Programs

Canada    Canada-Israel Industrial Research and Development Foundation CIIRDF  
Canada    Israel - Canada Cooperative Research Program  
China    Chinese-Israeli Fund for Scientific and Strategic Research and Development  
Croatia    Croatia-Israel Scientific Research Cooperation  
European Union    European Community Research and Development Information Service CORDIS  
European Union    Europe-wide Research and Development Network EUREKA  
European Union    Israel European Union Sixth Framework Programme Directorate ISERD  
France    France-Israel Foundation  
France    France-Israel Industrial R&D Cooperation Framework FIRAD  
Germany    German - Israeli Industrial Cooperation DIIK  
Germany    German-Israeli Cooperation in Science and Technology BMBF-MOS  
Germany    German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific R&D GIF  
Germany    Minerva Fellowships, Short-Term Research Grants and Seed Grants  
India    Israel-India Cooperative Research Program  
Japan    Israel-Japanese Cooperative Research Program  
Singapore    Singapore-Israel Industrial Research and Development Foundation SIIRDF  
South Korea    Israel- Korea Cooperative Research Program  
South Korea    Korea-Israel Industrial Research and Development Fund KORIL-RDF  
UK    Britain-Israel Technology Foundation Britech  
UK    British Council Science Networking Development Scheme with Israel Ministry of Science SNDS  
USA    US-Israel Binational Agricultural R&D Fund BARD  
USA    US-Israel Binational Industrial R&D Foundation BIRD  
USA    US-Israel Binational Science Foundation BSF  
USA    US-Israel Educational Foundation Fulbright  

The Land of Israel was not stolen, as most people believe. The territory itself was granted to the Jews by the two previous governments to control it. In 1917, when the British controlled the Land, they made the Balfour Declaration. This declaration granted a Jewish Homeland in the British Mandate of Palestine.
The Land that the British had promised the Jews constituted, at the time, the current State of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, and what is now the nation of Jordan. In the end, the Jews received only 12% of the Land promised by the British.
However, the Land was granted to them by the British government. In 1947, the British turned over control of the Land of Israel to the United Nations. The UN took over control. They held a vote to the nations of the world. This vote was the partition plan of 1947. According to the plan, the Jews would get a piece of "Palestine" and the Arabs would get a piece. The resolution passed.
That means that the entire world granted the Jewish people sovereignty over the Land. To steal is to take something without permission. It cannot be defined as theft when you take something the entire world gave you permission to have. The war of 1948 was an aggression by 7 Arab armies to eradicate the Jewish government in Israel and to take without permission, the Land that was given to the Jews by the world. This war determined the boundaries of the State of Israel while the land that was to be a Palestinian state was taken by Jordan and Egypt.
Jordan had no right to the West Bank, but it took it anyway, as did Egypt with the Gaza Strip. The 1967 war was another war of aggression by the Arabs. The Egyptians violated a ceasefire agreement with Israel by crossing the Suez Canal, putting their troops on the border with Israel, and blockading Israeli trade routes. The Jordanians allowed over 10,000 Iraqi troops to mobilize inside the West Bank, and the Syrian army made a military pact with Egypt in where they vowed to attack Israel, meet in the middle, and have a cup of coffee on Diezenghoff Street in Tel Aviv.
The Israelis, in a defensive move, attacked and won a war declared on them by Egypt and Syria. In this war, they won territory. Territory won in a war, especially a defensive war, is not theft. When war broke out, the Israelis pleaded with Jordan not to enter the war. They offered to leave Jordan be if Jordan did the same to Israel. Jordan refused Israel’s offer of peace and attacked. As a result of the failed offensive on the Israelis, Jordan lost the West Bank, including the Old City of Jerusalem, Judaism’s holiest site.
These territories, illegally annexed by Egypt and Jordan, and used in an unprovoked offensive against Israel, was lost to the Israelis in a war and not stolen. Despite this, the government of Israel takes great measure to insure the property rights of all inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza. All Arabs that can prove with documentation that certain plots of land belong to them are allowed to keep their land and have the full protection of Israeli law to back their claims. It should be realized that in 1967, 80% of the West Bank belonged to the Kingdom of Jordan. That means that only 20% of the Land in the West Bank is privately owned. There are many settlements in Israel that have empty plots of land within the settlements because these plots belong to Arab’s who do not wish to sell. None of the Land that is part of the State of Israel was stolen in any way.

Some of Israel’s Accomplishments
Israel, the 100th smallest country, with less than 1/1000th of the world’s population, can lay claim to the following:
• The cell phone was developed in Israel by Israelis working in the Israeli branch of Motorola, which has its largest development center in Israel.
• Most of the Windows NT and XP operating systems were developed by Microsoft-Israel
• The Pentium MMX Chip technology was designed in Israel at Intel
• The Pentium-4 microprocessor and the Centrino processor were entirely designed, developed, and produced in Israel. The Pentium microprocessor in your computer was most likely made in Israel.
• Voice mail technology was developed in Israel.
• Both Microsoft and Cisco built their only R&D facilities outside the US in Israel
• The technology for the AOL Instant Messenger ICQ was developed in 1996 by four young Israelis
• According to industry officials, Israel designed the airline industry’s most impenetrable flight security. US officials now look to Israel for advice on how to handle airborne security threats.
• Israel produces more scientific papers per capita than any other nation in the world
• Israel has one of the highest rates of per capita patents filed as well.
• In proportion to its population, Israel has the largest number of startup companies in the world. In absolute terms, Israel has the largest number of startup companies than any other country in the world, except the US.
• Israel has the highest average living standards in the Middle East.
• On a per capita basis, Israel has the largest number of biotech startups
• Twenty-four percent of Israel’s workforce holds university degrees – ranking third in the industrialized world, after the US and Holland. 12% hold advanced degrees.
• Israel is the only liberal democracy in the Middle East
• In 1984 and 1991, Israel airlifted a total of 22,000 Ethiopian Jews at risk in Ethiopia
• When the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya was bombed in 1998, Israeli rescue teams were on the scene within a day – and saved three victims from the rubble.
• Relative to its population, Israel is the largest immigrant-absorbing nation on earth. Immigrants come in search of democracy, religious freedom, and economic opportunity.
• Israel was the first nation in the world to adapt the Kimberly Process, an international standard that certifies diamonds as “conflict free”
• Israel is the only country in the world that entered the 21st century with a net gain in its number of trees, made more remarkable because this was achieved in an area considered mainly desert
• Israel has more museums per capita than any other country
• Israeli scientists developed the first fully computerized, no-radiation, diagnostic instrumentation for breast cancer
• An Israeli company developed a computerized system for ensuring proper administration of medications, thus removing human error from medical treatment. Every year in US hospitals, 7,000 patients die from treatment mistakes.
• Israel’s Givun Imaging developed the first ingestible video camera, so small it fits inside a pill. Used to view the small intestine from the inside, the camera helps doctors diagnose cancer and digestive disorders.
• Israel leads the world in the number of scientists and technicians in the workforce. With over 25% of its workforce employed in technical professions, Israel places first in this category as well.
• A new acne treatment developed in Israel, the ClearLight device, produces a high intensity, ultraviolet-light-free, narrow band blue light that causes acne bacteria to self-destruct, all without damaging surrounding skin or tissue
• An Israeli company was the first to develop and install a large-scale solar-powered and fully functional electricity generating plant, in southern California’s Mojave desert.

All the above while engaged in regular wars with an implacable enemy that seeks its destruction, and an economy continuously under strain by having to spend more per capita on its own protection than any other country in the world.
Israel has participated and significantly contributed to all of humankind's attempts to better itself. Aside from the political facts of Israel’s existence, it is so important to remember and remind others of how Israel’s existence has personally benefited virtually everybody on the face of the earth.

LIFE in Israel in 1948
A collection of the photos from the LIFE Magazine archive. 1948 photos from Israel.
To this day, all the nations of the world remain against Israel.

Jewish girl, Rachel Levy, 7, fleeing from street w. burning bldgs. as the Arabs sack Jerusalem after its surrender. May 28, 1948. John Phillips

Jewish families leaving the old city through Zion's Gate. June 1948. John Phillips
Jewish families being evacuated from city. June 1948. John Phillips
Sandbagging in Tel Aviv. June 1948. Frank Scherschel
Two Rabbis conference with Jordanin Solgiers. June 1948. John Phillips
Two Rabbis conference with Arab Legion soldiers. June 1948. John Phillips
רבני ירושלים
הרב ישראל זאב מינצברג סבי זקני
ראבד העיר העתיקה
החכם הספרדי הוא הרב חזן
שניהם הלכו במסירות נפש עם דגל לבן להיכנע
למרות שראשי ההגנה התנגדו לכך ואפילו ירו לעברם אש חיה!
כי ראשי הממשל רצו שגורל אנשי הרובע יהיה כאנשי מצדה
שכולם ימותו
Sephardic Rabbi bringing terms of surrender of the Jewish quarter in Jerusalem to Jordanian Soldiers. June 1948. John Phillips
Jewish soldiers being guarded by Arab Legion soldiers after their surrender in Jerusalem. June 1948. John Phillips
Captured Jewish soldier sitting between two members of the Arab Legion. Jerusalem, Israel. June 1948. John Phillips

Frank Adam comments: Another useful detail in the seated three men photo:Jewish prisoner in pukka Brit shorts and two Arab Legion guards. The corporal on the viewer’s right is a negro. So? The nearest negroes to the Holy Land are in Sudan (deeply south from Egypt) or escaped slaves from Saudi Arabia. Either way he is an immigrant to the region which is one in the eye for the Arab complaint about Zionist Jews being immigrants.
This also illustrates the crafty recruitment of the Arab Legion any number were recruited from outside Jordan in southern Syria, Lebanon, (Saudi, Iraq) and Palestine as commonly taken to be the entire country West of the River J. This profile of personnel being foreign mercenaries were utterly dependent on their engagement & utterly loyal, but Glubb Pasha also realised that he would have less trouble to police by securing the consent of the desert tribes to his operations and recruited from them in balance pro rata to the size of each tribe which in the situation of nomadic pastoralists not averse to smuggling and theft in a subsistence society of who owes and owns whom amounted to representation and committment to the regime of the incipient Jordanian state. It was not so obvious nor institutionalised as the Indian Army system of ethnic regiments and companies with a company or two of different ethnicit(ies) in each regiment, but it was nevetheless political balancing of the grass roots.
Major James M. Hankin Turvin speaking with Lt. Abdallah Mogely. Israel 1948, John Phillips
Major James M. Hankin Turvin speaking with Lt. Abdallah Mogely. Israel 1948, John Phillips

Arab soldier standing guard in the Jewish qarter in Jerusalem. June 1948. John Phillips.
Arab Legion soldier standing guard in the Jewish quarter in Jerusalem. June 1948. John Phillips.

Frank Adam comments:  the status & responsibility of client state troops is politcally nice. The Arab Legion was British equipped, trained and had a lot of British field officers (majors & colonels) and its commander all, “on contract,” or, “secondment.” In 1920 – 46 it was the originally gendarmerie desert patrol force of the Emirate of Transjordan which the British had created within the Eastern part of the Palestine Mandate. In English English, “gendarmerie” is a nationally organised, armed but police force at the direction of civil power, local and central (state troopers in US?). Britain audited TJ’s books ie approved the budget, and supplied quite a few senior civil officers all supervised by a Resident who reported to the High Commissioner in Jerusalem his immediate local senior, and directly to the Colonial Office, London. So in the 1941 Iraqi campaign and for internal security ie guard duties in Palestine 1945-47 inclusive, the Arab Legion was available (from ‘46, turning itself into an “army”) to the British commander in Palestine or Iraq as another British unit – having formally asked for their service through usual channels from the Transjordanian government which was internally fairly independent – or had to be treated as such to keep up appearances and so political effectiveness. In 1946 the British signed a treaty with Transjordan to become the Kingdom of Jordan and so strictly an ally, rather than a dependent territory – but it depended on a pa sub of £4 ($11) million from London till the 50’s when Hussein fired Glubb and the US after ‘56 gradually substituted for UK as it frequently has across the World since 1945, but in its own variations of retired officers on contract in Kossovo Iraq and other locations.

Nevertheless there are press photos of Legionaries on duty in Jerusalem’s “Bevingrad” in ‘46-’47 as it was Bevin’s initial policy that the Arab parts of Palestine would go in with Jordan – by one of his remarks. Eventually the Jordanian Government withdrew the Legion by early ‘48 from West of the Jordan entirely, till Abdullah invaded Palestine in May ‘48. By the memoirs and statements of the time any British seconded officers had returned to their own British units or were kept East of the Jordan, but there were still some contract officers in the force across the River.
Arab Legionnaires fight from walls of Jerusalem, May 1948. John Phillips
Illegal Jewish immigrants aboard captured refugee ship surrounded by British troops who halted the craft shortly before the official creation of the state of Israel. Haifa 1948. Dmitri Kessel
Fran Adam Commenst: The half platoon of helmeted British troops on the quay waiting for the illegal immigrants to (be?) disembarked are Parachute Regiment. The giveaway is – unlike the usual British “battle bowler” souplate design from the 14-18 trench war – the brimless helmet developed for airborne units (2 divisions in ‘44 – ‘45) not to catch the door in the jump, or slipstream. Later a lot of them went to the navy for similar reasons of warship constricted passages and hatches.

Refugees on captured ship. Dmitri Kessel
Jewish Refugees from illegal ship. 1948. Dmitri Kessel

Sara Winner comments: “I recognized my father and myself as a baby on the picture titled refugees on captured ship taken by Dimitry Kessel, a picture I see first time in my life. I would like to know if you could find for me date of this picture and the name of the ship.”
Elderly Jews going to Zion's Gate evacuating the Jewish quarter of Jerusalem. June 1948. John Phillips
Somebody said about the photo above:

The Legion having a Banquet dinner. April 1948. John Phillips

Haganah Soldiers. May 1948. Frank Schersche

View of Haifa from Mt. Carmel in June 1948. Frank Scherschel
The next two photographs are remarkable. I found them in the different parts of the archive. It occurred to me to compare the architectural elements, the stair, the window openings, etc. This is before and after of the same place!

Jewish families waiting outside their homes to be evacuated by Arab troops. Jerusalem, Israel. June 1948. John Phillips
Rubble lying in the streets after Arab looting of Jewish homes. Jerusalem. June 1948. John Phillips

Looting of the Jewish Jerusalem, John Phillips. Jume 1948
Looting in burning Jerusalem, John Phillips. June 1948
Jewish people attempting to leave portion of city surrendered to Arab forces. Jerusalem, Israel. June 1948. John Phillips
International Red Cross employees helping Jewish refugees. Jerusalem, Israel. June 1948. John Phillips
Elderly Jewish man sitting in street after surrender of city. Jerusalem, Israel. June 1948. John Phillips
Arabs evacuating the village of Zenin. May 1948. John Phillips
Women and children refugees evacuating the village of Zenin. May 1948. John Phillips
British Marines guarding a deserted street of Haifa
British Marines guarding a deserted Arab street of Haifa. May 1948. John Phillips
Jews take over as British Mandate ends. May 1948. Frank Scherschel
Israeli men celebrate the end of the British Mandate. May 1948. Frank Scherschel
Tel Aviv. May 1948. Frank Scherschel
Tel Aviv, Israel. 1948. Dmitri Kessel
A British soldier sitting guard on a rooftop. (Is this Haruvah?). 1948. Dmitri Kessel
A British soldier sitting guard on a rooftop. 1948. Dmitri Kessel
Frank Adam comments: The British – Scots by his Tam O’Shanter hat style – soldier with Bren light machine gun on a roof is in front of the dome of the Tiferet Israel Synagogue, also known as the Nissan Bek after its original warden/sponsor. The dome of the Hurva reaches the walls/edges of its main structure and is not on a “drum.” Both synagogue outlines are easy to distinguish on learning this structural difference which is obvious when you look at the Old City from the walls or external viewing points. The Nissan Bek was on the Eastern edge of the Western hill of the old City now crowned with modern yeshiva buildings, while the Hurva is further West.
Arab soldier with rifle riding on a motorcycle. March 1948. John Phillips
Arab Legion in Jerusalem. May 1948. John Phillips
Bodies of dead Jews lie in the rubble along Tel Aviv waterfront after Arab raid. May 1948. Frank Scherschel
Jewish troops blindfolding Polish adventurers doing sabotage for Arabs. May 1948. John Phillips
Troops blindfolding Polish adventurers doing sabotage for Arabs. May 1948. John Phillips
People attending banquet during truce. Jerusalem, Israel. June 1948. John Phillips
An explosion blasting a path in Jewish-held old city after Arabs carefully crept through gunfire to plant dynamite under walls during attack by Arab Legion. Jerusalem. June 1948. John Phillips
Arab soldiers with rifles being transported in military vehicles. March 1948. John Phillips
King Abdullah Ibn Hussein (L) talking to an officer. April 1948. John Phillips
View of Jewish outpost near Egyptian border, showing trenches, gun emplacements and barded wire. 1948. Dmitri Kessel

All of us heard so much about that time. And mythology confuses the truth and everyone is pulling his own brand of wool. Yet when you see the photos, there is an entirely tangible perspective on the events. You can see that that war was much smaller than we imagined, it’s always is. You can see that Brits where involved to huge degree, this is to be expected. You can also argue that it was up to the Brits to manage the situation and they clearly did nothing to facilitate the transition. You can also see that Arab Legion was trained and equipped by Brits. The Arab Legion was fighting Jews at least in Jerusalem and contrary to the popular perception at that time Jews were an amateur army.

Many families still live in Jerusalem, some even returned to their former homes but are considered “settlers” and occupiers for doing so. Jewish refugees have never been recognized as such by any organization except after WW2; not the refugees from Arab occupation of Jerusalem nor those who fled persecution from Arab countries and found refuge in Israel. At one time we refused to call them refugees since they were considered as coming home but this apparently back fired since neither their refugee status nor their homecoming were recognized!

The UNRWA is concerned with support to refugees of the 1948 Israeli-Arab wars. Its mandate is not limited to a given race or religion of refugees. Instead, “For operational purposes, UNRWA defines Palestine refugee as any person whose “normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict.”
The curious choice of the May 15th date (the day after the creation of the State of Israel, the “Nakba”) become clearer with these pictures.

UNWRA indeed was originally non- ethnic and supported Israel's Jewish refugees – or some of them – till into 1951 at the latest. It is forgotten that the 1948 fighting caused Jewish refugees from the areas along the Jew-Arab divide in Jerusalem and Haifa and along the TA – Jaffa border: I have seen a total of 5000 Jewish refugees mentioned in ths respect, but Israel finally said thanks to UN and looked after its own.

The Old Yishuv Court Museum at 6 Or Chaim Street, Jerusalem, shows how Jews lived in Jerusalem from the mid-19th century to just after World War I, with a final room that displays photos and artifacts about the battle for Jerusalem in 1948. The Museum is housed in the remains of two former synagogues in the Old City – the 16th century HaAri Synagogue and the 19th century Or HaHayim Synagogue.
More information about this gem of a museum can be found at http://www.jewish-quarter.org.il/atar-museum.asp

Terrific work. The photos do a great job of highlighting how tumultuous and complex the situation was during this period. Jerusalem is a case in point. Although a number of 'New Historians' like to claim that Israel had the upper hand throughout the war, it's clear the Arab Legion was well-armed and trained (by the British) and fought hard. They also violated more principles of war than I can list here. In fact, British politicians ( especially Winston Churchill, then sitting as Opposition Leader) were privately concerned that it would come out that they were directly involved in the conflict, but they were assured by Bevin that British officers had been removed from 'active participation' in the attacks, having been ordered “to abandon their units if these invaded Jewish territory.” (Arabs at war: military Effectiveness, 1948-1991 By Kenneth M. Pollack, pg. 271) Nevertheless, Jewish witnesses in Jerusalem and Kfar Etzion said otherwise.
As for the dates, as Yehuda Margalit points out, it was on Friday, May 28, 1948 the Arab Legion succeeded at controlling the main Jewish street of the Quarter; they immediately destroyed the Hurva Synagogue (in anticipation of the arrival of King Abdullah) and began burning and looting Jewish shops. The International Red Cross had – to their credit – been trying to convince the Legion, at the request of the Haganah, to permit women and children to leave. The Legion repeatedly refused, demanding that there be a complete surrender of all Jews. All attempts to stop the Legion had failed, and with fighting now raging along a 20-mile front between Latrun and Ramallah, reinforcements were unavailable.
“At 11:00am on Friday, Rabbis Reuven Hazan, 70, and Israel Mintzberg, 83, walked from one of the Jewish positions toward the Arab lines. They carried a white flag made out of a bit of once-festive tablecloth tacked to a stick. Although he was shot and wounded by a sniper, Rabbi Hazan called out in Arabic, 'Good morning. We have come to talk to you, and we want to see your commander.'” Mitzberg was held hostage while Rabbi Hazan retrieved the Haganah representative to negotiate the surrender.
After 13 days of shelling (which killed or injured hundreds of civilians) and hand-to-hand fighting, “the exhausted Jewish garrison in the Old City of Jerusalem accepted the Arab Legion's surrender terms.”
On Friday afternoon “290 able-bodied men from 15 to 50 were taken prisoner and 1,200 women, children and aged were passed to the Jewish lines outside the walls with the cooperation of the U.N. representative and the Red Cross….the evacuation of civilians through Zion gate began on Friday evening and lasted until 2 o'clock on Saturday morning.” Fifty-one of the captives were injured; three physicians and four nurses volunteered to stay with them.
There are some reports that Jews were, in fact, invited to stay in the Old City if they promised allegiance to King Abdullah. I haven't been able to find out if anyone accepted the offer.
An excellent first-hand account of the surrender can be read in 'Forever My Jerusalem' by Puah Shteiner. Further accounts are now online in archived editions of The Palestine Post, available here: http://jpress.huji.ac.il/publications/PPost-en.asp
All quotes above are from the Sunday, May 30 edition of the Palestine Post

The Arab-Israel conflict and the peace process have for decades been a focus for world-wide attention - on the part of the media, academia, political and governmental institutions, NGOs, religious groups, the business world, and the public at large.
With the passage of time, some of Israel's critics have increasingly allowed their approach to the problem to be shaped by myths, slogans, prejudices and lack of knowledge, rather than by solid facts. This has been seen, for example, in matters pertaining to the territories in dispute between Israel and the Palestinians: the historical background is often either unknown or ignored. Moreover, even when dealing with the present situation - the problem of terrorism, regional dangers, and the impact of topography on borders - the context is often not taken into account

National Library of Israel Archival Resource

Ancient Maps: Holy Land ; Jerusalem ; Historic Cities
Einstein Archives Online
Personal Archives: Archives Department ; Music Department
The National Sound Archives: Catalogue; A Selection
Treasures of the Jewish People: Mahzor Nuremberg ; Nuremberg Haggada
Newton's Secrets - Virtual Exhibition
Israeli Internet Sites Archive
Early Hebrew Newspapers: Hazevi, Halevanon, Hamagid, Havazelet, Hazefirah, Hameliz
Broadsides and documents (Hebrew): The Shmitta Controversy  Passover Products
Digitized Manuscripts - From the Collection of the National Library and Other Collections
The Library's Online Catalogue | Hebrew Manuscripts in the Vatican Library
Historical Jewish Press  

Land of Israel (7th-11th Centuries)
After the death of Emperor Julian II, in 363 CE, most of the Jewish settlements in the south were destroyed. The Jews remained mainly in the Galilee and in the larger cities.

In 1920, the San Remo Peace Conference gave Great Britain the mandate for the Land of Israel and Transjordan. In 1921, the British decided to decrease the size of the Jewish national home and to take Transjordan away from it. In 1922, Churchill published the White Paper on this subject. Later that year, the League of Nations approved the changed mandate, which took effect in 1923

In 1947, Great Britain relinquished to the UN the power to make decisions relating to the status of the Land of Israel. The General Assembly appointed a special committee that collected evidence and decided unanimously that Israel should be granted independence. Most of the committee members favored partitioning the land into two states, a Jewish state and an Arab state, with Jerusalem under international supervision. On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly accepted the partition resolution, 33 to 13.

In the context of the Arab-Israeli conflict, it’s called “the tyranny of the weak.”
The “Palestinians” are demanding and expecting Israel to make an unconditional surrender to them for the fact that Israel has been winning defensive wars.
They want all their demands met (which can best be described as massive do-overs so that the Arab world can regain everything they ever lost as a result of attacking Israel and losing).
Most people in the world are expecting Israel to give in to these demands.

There was hardly anyone in palestine when the Zionists started purchasing land in the late 1800s. Most of the Arabs came for economic opportunities provided by the Zionists. It was part of the Ottoman Empire until the Turks lost it after World War One. Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel were created out of the Ottoman Empire. 75% of the region known as Palestine became Jordan. The rest was to be Palestine and Israel. After the UN voted to create the State of Israel, the surrounding arab nations tried to destroy it.
 our basic problem is that the Pali narrative is simple, and the truth is complicated. The simple-minded and the intellectually lazy will always chose a simple narrative, because working at the truth is either too hard, or quite possibly beyond them. Sux, but there it is.
Lefties have to side with the underdogs even when the underdogs are suicide bombers.
This is why Israel’s enemies redefined the war to change it from the Arab-Israeli conflict (i.e., 300 million Arabs versus 5.7 million Jews) to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (5.7 million Jews versus 3.2 million Arabs).
They needed the west to see the conflict in terms of Israel being a gigantic state picking on a tiny people so that the west wouldn’t feel the need to side with Israel against the truly gigantic Arab world and its 300 million angry Arabians who don’t want Israel to exist. It’s sick, but they did this quite deliberately as a PR choice.


Israel Is 'Stealing Palestinian Children's Eyes,' Iranian TV Series Says
By Susan Jones CNSNews.com Morning Editor December 23, 2004


1. Anti-Semitic Legends      
Webpage with Anti-Semitic Legends by Medieval European Christians.

2. Expulsions and the Black Death      
Here is told the story of the different expulsions of Jews, during the middle ages in central Europe, including France, Germany, Italy and England. Pictures accompany the text, showing paintings and ingravings depicting the expulsions.

3. History of Medieval Jews and Haitian Voodoo      
An analysis of medieval blood libel accusations against Jews and its correspondence with accusations made against Haitian Voodoo. A historical comparison of two mother texts that served as the sourcebook for many misguided accusations against both Jews and Voodoo practitioners.

4. Internet Medieval Sourcebook - Medieval Jewish Life      
The site presents the Jewish section of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook, offering numerous links about the medieval Jewish communities all over the world, economical issues, anti-semitism, religious aspects and figures, as well as primary documents (translated) concerning the various categories.

5. Jewish History Sourcebook: The Black Death and the Jews 1348-1349 CE
In 1348 there appeared in Europe a devastating plague which killed
twenty-five million people. A rumor was current that these deaths were due to an international conspiracy of Jewry to poison Christendom. By authority of Amadeus VI Jews were tortured until they "confessed". This page gives a translation from the Latin of a confession made under torture by a Jew named Agimet, and an acco...

6. Martyrdom in Jewish Traditions          
Paper dealing with the subject of martyrdom in Judaism, from the ancient sources to the modern period.

7. Medieval Jewish Women in History, Literature, Law, and Art: An Annotated Bibliography      
An annotated bibliography dedicated to the topic: Medieval Jewish Women in History, Literature, Law, and Art. This bibliography was compiled by Cheryl Tallan and is part of the ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies project

8. Medieval Sourcebook: A Blood Libel Cult: Anderl von Rinn, d. 1462      
This page tells about the "martyrdom" of Anderl, a three year-old boy who became the focus of a blood-libel cult in the seventeenth-century, and gives an illustration of it, portraying the child being held down and having his throat slit. The killers in the illustration are clearly marked as Jews by their clothes and turbans.

9. Medieval Sourcebook: Ephraim ben Jacob: The Ritual Murder Accusation at Blois, May, 1171      
In 1171 the Jews of Blois, France, were accused of having crucified a Christian child during the Passover holydays and of having thrown the corpse into the Loire. The accusation that Jews require Christian blood for their Passover ritual has been made against the Jews from that time on.
This page gives an account of the burning of over thirty men and women at Blois which is taken from A Book of H...

10. Medieval Sourcebook: Gregory X: Letter on Jews, (1271-76) - Against the Blood Libel      
Canon law was hostile to Jews in wording, but the popes also refused to accept popular violence against Jews. This page gives the text of a letter by Pope Gregory X (1271 -1276) which incorporates material from earlier letters of Innocent III (1198-1216) and Innocent IV (1243-1254). Here Gregory X opposes the blood libel.

11. Medieval Sourcebook: Socrates Scholasticus: The Blood Libel in Syria (late 4th Cent.)      
A version of The Blood Libel by Socrates Scholasticus, 4th century Syria, from "Ecclesiastical History".

12. Medieval Sourcebook: Thomas of Monmouth: The Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich, 1173      
The Blood Libel myth appears in a complete form for the first time in The Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich, a Latin work written about 1173 by Thomas of Monmouth, a contemporary of the events which he relates. The author was a monk in the Norwich Benedictine monastery.

13. Simon of Trent
"The Martyrdom of Simon of Trent"; the Jews are identified by the yellow badges on their dress.
The illustration is the work of Gandolfino d' Asti, late 15th century.

14. Simon of Trent
"The murder of Simon of Trent by the Jews," one of the most notorious accusations of alleged ritual murder to have taken place in Trento, Italy, in 1475. After a fanatical Franciscan had been preaching against the Jews before Easter, the body of a child is found near the house of a Jew. All Jews of the town are arrested. After being tortured for 15 days, 17 Jews "confess." Eigh...

15. The History of the Jews in England (1066-1655)      
This page provides a brief overview of both the history of the Jews in England and the varying position that the Jewish community held in England over 600 years. It gives a timetable, and you click on a date to see more pages, additional information.

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