Sunday, June 6, 2010

Globalization

discoverthenetworks

Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is a social change, an increase in connections among societies and their elements due to, among others, the explosive evolution of transport and communication technologies. The term is applied to many social, cultural, commercial and economic activities. Depending on the context it can mean
formation of a global village - closer contact between different parts of the world, with increasing possibilities of personal exchange and mutual understanding between "world citizens",
economic globalization - more freedom of trade and increasing relations among members of an industry in different parts of the world (globalization of an industry),
negative effects of increasingly multinational businesses - perceptions of evasion of legal and moral standards through moving manufacturing, mining and harvesting practices overseas.
It shares a number of characteristics with internationalization and is used interchangeably, although some prefer to use globalization to emphasize the erosion of the nation state or national boundaries.
History of Globalization
Since the word has both technical and political meanings, different groups will have differing histories of "globalization". In general use within the field of economics and political economy, is, however, a history of increasing trade between nations based on stable institutions that allow individuals and firms in different nations to exchange goods with minimal friction.
The term "liberalization" came to mean the combination of laissez faire economic theory with the removal of barriers to the movement of goods. This lead to the increasingly specialization of nations in exports, and the pressure to end protective tarrifs and other barriers to trade. The period of the Gold Standard and liberalization of the 19th century is often called "The First Era of Globalization". Based on the Pax Britannia and the exchange of goods in currencies pegged to specie, this era grew along with industrialization. The theoretical basis was Ricardo's work on comparative advantage and Say's Law of general equilibrium. In essence, it was argued that nations would trade effectively, and that any temporary disruptions in supply or demand would correct themselves automatically. The institution of the Gold Standard came in steps in major industrialized nations between approximately 1850 and 1880, though exactly when various nations were truly on the gold standard is a matter of a great deal of contentious debate.
The "First Era of Globalization" is said to have broken down in stages beginning with the First World War, and then collapsing with the crisis of the Gold Standard in the late 1920's and early 1930's.
The "Second Era of Globalization" accompanies a movement in economic thought called "Neo-Liberalism", which argues that in a world of floating exchange rates, it is economically ineffective for nations to use regulation to protect their internal markets, and that it is impossible to maintain economic autonomy and monetary policy autonomy. See Mundell-Fleming Model.
This period is generally what is referred to by the word "Globalization" in the present.
Globalization in this era has been driven by Trade Negotiation Rounds, which lead to a series of agreements to remove restrictions on "Free Trade", the Uraguay round led to a treaty to create the World Trade Organization or WTO, to mediate trade disputes. Other bilateral trade agreements, including sections of Europe's Maastricht Treaty and the North American Free Trade Agreement have also been signed in pursuit of the goal of reducing tariffs and barriers to trade.
Proponents claim that this leads to lower prices, more employment and better allocation of resources. Sympathetic critics point out that the results of Globalization have not been what was predicted when the attempt to increase free trade began, and that many institutions involved in the system of Globalization have not taken the interests of poorer nations and labor into account. Unsympathetic critics link globalization with corporatization, and the increasing autonomy of corporate entities to force nation-states to bend political policy to the will of corporate entities. Many conferences between trade and finance ministers of the core globalizing nations have been met with large, and sometimes violent, protests from opponents of "corporate globalism".
Signs of Globalization
Globalization has become identified with a number of trends, most of which have developed since World War II. These include greater international movement of commodities, money, information, and people; and the development of technology, organizations, legal systems, and infrastructures to allow this movement. More specifically, globalization refers to:
An increase in international trade at a faster rate than the growth in the world economy

Increase in international flow of capital including foreign direct investment


Greater transborder data flow, using such technologies such as the Internet, Communication satellites and telephones


Greater international cultural exchange, for example through the export of Hollywood and Bollywood movies.


Spreading of multiculturalism and better individual access to cultural diversity, with on the other hand, some reduction in diversity through assimilation, hybridization, Westernisation, Americanization or Sinosization of cultures.


Erosion of national sovereignty and national borders through international agreements leading to organizations like the WTO


Greater international travel and tourism


Greater immigration, including illegal immigration


Development of global telecommunications infrastructure


Development of a global financial systems


Increase in the share of the world economy controlled by multinational corporations


Increased role of international organizations such as WTO, WIPO, IMF that deal with international transactions


An increase in the number of standards applied globally; e.g. copyright laws


Many of these trends are seen as positive by supporters of various forms of globalization, and in many cases globalization has been actively promoted by governments and other institutions. For example, there are economic arguments supporting globalization, such as the theory of comparative advantage suggesting that free trade leads to a more efficient allocation of resources, with all those involved in the trade benefitting.

Global trade or still international / multilateral trade?
Barriers to international trade have been considerably lowered since World War II through international agreements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Particular initiatives carried out as a result of GATT and the WTO, for which GATT is the foundation, have included:
Promotion of free trade
Of goods: reduction or elimination of tariffs; construction of free trade zones with small or no tariffs

Of capital: reduction or elimination of capital controls


Reduction, elimination, or harmonization of subsidies for local businesses


Intellectual Property Restrictions


Harmonization of intellectual property laws across nations (generally speaking, with more restrictions)


Supranational recognition of intellectual property restrictions (e.g. patents granted by China would be recognized in the US)


Some consider that the first successful business model of globalization exploitation, although it might be just a residue of the old colonial system, was the Indonesian regime change of 1965 when the democratic government was overthrown and the military regime under General Suharto gave US business access to new clothing factories and mining opportunities in Borneo and New Guinea. The Indonesian factories employed Muslim women of Java on twelve to eighteen hour, six or seven day shifts which combined with much lower wages gave a distinct commercial advantage to US clothes manufacture. Though the Ford Foundation originally began indoctrination of the land owning elite during the 1950's, they soon found that the military Generals were both amenable and eager to give US companies access to their nations wealth in exchange for fiscal and political aid. In preparation for the regime change the US supported the Indonesian military invasions of West New Guinea in 1961 and East Timor in 1975; in exchange the US received in 1967 mining rights to West New Guinea isolated from legal limitations such as the Fourth Geneva Convention, UN resolution 1803 "Permanent sovereignty over natural resources", or environmental controls the US Freeport mine is the world's largest open cut mine and is the world's cheapest source of copper; gold from the mine is sent to the US on monthly shipments.

Anti-globalization
Various aspects of globalization are seen as harmful by anti-globalization, public-interest activists.

Globalization in question
There is much academic discussion about whether globalization is a real phenomenon or only a myth. Although the term is widespread, many authors argue that the characteristics of the phenomenon have already been seen at other moments in history. Also, many note that those features that make people believe we are in the process of globalization, including the increase in international trade and the greater role of multinational corporations, are not as deeply established as they may appear. Thus, many authors prefer the use of the term internationalization rather than globalization. To put it simply, the role of the state and the importance of nations are greater in internationalization, while globalization in its complete form eliminates nation states. So, these authors see that the frontiers of countries, in a broad sense, are far from being dissolved, and therefore this radical globalization process is not yet happening, and probably won't happen, considering that in world history, internationalization never turned into globalization.



Multiculturalism

              (See also: Left / Progressive; Liberalism)


For the past several decades, the leading opinion-makers in the media, the universities and the churches have promulgated the view that notions of Western political and economic dominance are the residue of Western exploitation of, and aggression towards, other cultures. Underlying this view—and the corresponding notion that these other cultures are “morally equal” if not superior to the West--is an overwhelmingly negative critique of Western civilization itself.

According to this ideology, instead of attempting to globalize its values, the West should stay in its own cultural backyard. Values like universal human rights, individualism and liberalism are regarded merely as ethnocentric products of Western history. The scientific knowledge that the West has produced is simply one of many "ways of knowing." In place of Western universalism, this critique of the West offers the relativism of multiculturalism, a concept that regards the West not as the pinnacle of human achievement to date, but as simply one of many equally valid cultural systems.

Although originally designed to foster tolerance and respect for other cultures, these sentiments were subsequently captured by the radical left and used for its political ends. Thus the history of Western culture is regarded as little more than a crime against the rest of humanity. The West, say the critics, cannot judge other cultures but must condemn its own.

Though commonly known as multiculturalism, this position is defined by its supporters with a series of post prefixes: postmodernism, poststructuralism, postcolonialism. However, it is best understood as an "anti" phenomenon because it defines itself not by what it is for, but by what it is against. It is entirely a negation of Western culture and values: whatever the West supports, this anti-West rejects.

With the demise of Marxism in the late 1980s, multiculturalism emerged as its major ideological successor. What follows is an overview of some of the creed's major precepts:
  •  Western culture was founded on aggression towards others. The whole of Western culture since the ancient Greeks is something to be disowned.
  •  Western literature and arts endorse imperialism. Rather than reflecting “the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome,” the Western literary heritage is politically contaminated. This charge is reinforced by a critical apparatus based on gender, race and class. Othello is branded as ethnocentric; Paradise Lost as misogynistic; Hemingway as pathologically heterosexual.
  •  The Western economic system exploits the rest of the world. Globalization is a euphemism for American imperialism. The poverty of the Third World is guaranteed by debts from the International Monetary Fund and the free-market policies of the World Trade Organization.
  •  Victimhood should prevail over individualism. Individualism is both the cause and effect of capitalism, which in its turn produced the imperialism that now oppresses the wretched of the earth. The idea of individual human rights deriving from the Enlightenment is the one great barrier to a collectivist solution for humankind.
In its pursuit of these ideas, the multicultural left has worked hard to deconstruct the traditional history curriculum of American schools. Western history is no longer to be judged by the record of its achievements. Instead, it is to become a story of the struggle of its victims against oppression and discrimination, and of how they have risen to challenge their exploiters. Consequently, the purpose of teaching history becomes an effort to "empower" victims rather than to tell the truth about the past.

The RESOURCES column located on the right side of this page contains links to articles, essays, books, and videos that explore such topics as:
  • the major philosophical premises of multiculturalism and its ascendancy in the Western world over the past several decades;
  • the phenomenon of political correctness, which is directly derived from classical Marxism, and advocates a society of radical egalitarianism enforced by the power of the state;
  • the dogma which holds that no culture is preferable to, or inherently superior to, any other culture;
  •  the deeply held belief that white people carry, in their hearts and minds, a uniquely malevolent and far-reaching brand of racism, bigotry, and intolerance aimed at nonwhites;
  • the "diversity" movement which seeks to guarantee the presence of an "adequate" number of certified "victim-group" members in any given work force or student body;
  • how multiculturalist doctrines and worldviews are passed on to students in America's classrooms, from grade school through college;
  • the social and political agendas of the gay lobby;
  • the origins and teachings of the week-long Kwanzaa festival which is celebrated mainly in the U.S. from December 26 through January 1 each year;
  • how the political Left seeks to devalue Christianity, and to purge Christian customs and symbols from the public square; and
  • the leftist notion that Western capitalist societies corrupt the morals of mankind and, in contrast to undeveloped, non-Western societies, are incompatible with virtue.

Multiculturalism

              (See also: Left / Progressive; Liberalism)


For the past several decades, the leading opinion-makers in the media, the universities and the churches have promulgated the view that notions of Western political and economic dominance are the residue of Western exploitation of, and aggression towards, other cultures. Underlying this view—and the corresponding notion that these other cultures are “morally equal” if not superior to the West--is an overwhelmingly negative critique of Western civilization itself.

According to this ideology, instead of attempting to globalize its values, the West should stay in its own cultural backyard. Values like universal human rights, individualism and liberalism are regarded merely as ethnocentric products of Western history. The scientific knowledge that the West has produced is simply one of many "ways of knowing." In place of Western universalism, this critique of the West offers the relativism of multiculturalism, a concept that regards the West not as the pinnacle of human achievement to date, but as simply one of many equally valid cultural systems.

Although originally designed to foster tolerance and respect for other cultures, these sentiments were subsequently captured by the radical left and used for its political ends. Thus the history of Western culture is regarded as little more than a crime against the rest of humanity. The West, say the critics, cannot judge other cultures but must condemn its own.

Though commonly known as multiculturalism, this position is defined by its supporters with a series of post prefixes: postmodernism, poststructuralism, postcolonialism. However, it is best understood as an "anti" phenomenon because it defines itself not by what it is for, but by what it is against. It is entirely a negation of Western culture and values: whatever the West supports, this anti-West rejects.

With the demise of Marxism in the late 1980s, multiculturalism emerged as its major ideological successor. What follows is an overview of some of the creed's major precepts:
  •  Western culture was founded on aggression towards others. The whole of Western culture since the ancient Greeks is something to be disowned.
  •  Western literature and arts endorse imperialism. Rather than reflecting “the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome,” the Western literary heritage is politically contaminated. This charge is reinforced by a critical apparatus based on gender, race and class. Othello is branded as ethnocentric; Paradise Lost as misogynistic; Hemingway as pathologically heterosexual.
  •  The Western economic system exploits the rest of the world. Globalization is a euphemism for American imperialism. The poverty of the Third World is guaranteed by debts from the International Monetary Fund and the free-market policies of the World Trade Organization.
  •  Victimhood should prevail over individualism. Individualism is both the cause and effect of capitalism, which in its turn produced the imperialism that now oppresses the wretched of the earth. The idea of individual human rights deriving from the Enlightenment is the one great barrier to a collectivist solution for humankind.
In its pursuit of these ideas, the multicultural left has worked hard to deconstruct the traditional history curriculum of American schools. Western history is no longer to be judged by the record of its achievements. Instead, it is to become a story of the struggle of its victims against oppression and discrimination, and of how they have risen to challenge their exploiters. Consequently, the purpose of teaching history becomes an effort to "empower" victims rather than to tell the truth about the past.

The RESOURCES column located on the right side of this page contains links to articles, essays, books, and videos that explore such topics as:
  • the major philosophical premises of multiculturalism and its ascendancy in the Western world over the past several decades;
  • the phenomenon of political correctness, which is directly derived from classical Marxism, and advocates a society of radical egalitarianism enforced by the power of the state;
  • the dogma which holds that no culture is preferable to, or inherently superior to, any other culture;
  •  the deeply held belief that white people carry, in their hearts and minds, a uniquely malevolent and far-reaching brand of racism, bigotry, and intolerance aimed at nonwhites;
  • the "diversity" movement which seeks to guarantee the presence of an "adequate" number of certified "victim-group" members in any given work force or student body;
  • how multiculturalist doctrines and worldviews are passed on to students in America's classrooms, from grade school through college;
  • the social and political agendas of the gay lobby;
  • the origins and teachings of the week-long Kwanzaa festival which is celebrated mainly in the U.S. from December 26 through January 1 each year;
  • how the political Left seeks to devalue Christianity, and to purge Christian customs and symbols from the public square; and
  • the leftist notion that Western capitalist societies corrupt the morals of mankind and, in contrast to undeveloped, non-Western societies, are incompatible with virtue.

Multiculturalism

              (See also: Left / Progressive; Liberalism)


For the past several decades, the leading opinion-makers in the media, the universities and the churches have promulgated the view that notions of Western political and economic dominance are the residue of Western exploitation of, and aggression towards, other cultures. Underlying this view—and the corresponding notion that these other cultures are “morally equal” if not superior to the West--is an overwhelmingly negative critique of Western civilization itself.

According to this ideology, instead of attempting to globalize its values, the West should stay in its own cultural backyard. Values like universal human rights, individualism and liberalism are regarded merely as ethnocentric products of Western history. The scientific knowledge that the West has produced is simply one of many "ways of knowing." In place of Western universalism, this critique of the West offers the relativism of multiculturalism, a concept that regards the West not as the pinnacle of human achievement to date, but as simply one of many equally valid cultural systems.

Although originally designed to foster tolerance and respect for other cultures, these sentiments were subsequently captured by the radical left and used for its political ends. Thus the history of Western culture is regarded as little more than a crime against the rest of humanity. The West, say the critics, cannot judge other cultures but must condemn its own.

Though commonly known as multiculturalism, this position is defined by its supporters with a series of post prefixes: postmodernism, poststructuralism, postcolonialism. However, it is best understood as an "anti" phenomenon because it defines itself not by what it is for, but by what it is against. It is entirely a negation of Western culture and values: whatever the West supports, this anti-West rejects.

With the demise of Marxism in the late 1980s, multiculturalism emerged as its major ideological successor. What follows is an overview of some of the creed's major precepts:
  •  Western culture was founded on aggression towards others. The whole of Western culture since the ancient Greeks is something to be disowned.
  •  Western literature and arts endorse imperialism. Rather than reflecting “the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome,” the Western literary heritage is politically contaminated. This charge is reinforced by a critical apparatus based on gender, race and class. Othello is branded as ethnocentric; Paradise Lost as misogynistic; Hemingway as pathologically heterosexual.
  •  The Western economic system exploits the rest of the world. Globalization is a euphemism for American imperialism. The poverty of the Third World is guaranteed by debts from the International Monetary Fund and the free-market policies of the World Trade Organization.
  •  Victimhood should prevail over individualism. Individualism is both the cause and effect of capitalism, which in its turn produced the imperialism that now oppresses the wretched of the earth. The idea of individual human rights deriving from the Enlightenment is the one great barrier to a collectivist solution for humankind.
In its pursuit of these ideas, the multicultural left has worked hard to deconstruct the traditional history curriculum of American schools. Western history is no longer to be judged by the record of its achievements. Instead, it is to become a story of the struggle of its victims against oppression and discrimination, and of how they have risen to challenge their exploiters. Consequently, the purpose of teaching history becomes an effort to "empower" victims rather than to tell the truth about the past.

The RESOURCES column located on the right side of this page contains links to articles, essays, books, and videos that explore such topics as:
  • the major philosophical premises of multiculturalism and its ascendancy in the Western world over the past several decades;
  • the phenomenon of political correctness, which is directly derived from classical Marxism, and advocates a society of radical egalitarianism enforced by the power of the state;
  • the dogma which holds that no culture is preferable to, or inherently superior to, any other culture;
  •  the deeply held belief that white people carry, in their hearts and minds, a uniquely malevolent and far-reaching brand of racism, bigotry, and intolerance aimed at nonwhites;
  • the "diversity" movement which seeks to guarantee the presence of an "adequate" number of certified "victim-group" members in any given work force or student body;
  • how multiculturalist doctrines and worldviews are passed on to students in America's classrooms, from grade school through college;
  • the social and political agendas of the gay lobby;
  • the origins and teachings of the week-long Kwanzaa festival which is celebrated mainly in the U.S. from December 26 through January 1 each year;
  • how the political Left seeks to devalue Christianity, and to purge Christian customs and symbols from the public square; and
  • the leftist notion that Western capitalist societies corrupt the morals of mankind and, in contrast to undeveloped, non-Western societies, are incompatible with virtue.

Bilderberg 2010: Final List of Participants

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Bilderberg Meetings
June 6, 2010
Bilderberg 2010: Final List of Participants 030610Bilderberg 
space2

Sitges, Spain 3-6 June 2010

Final List of Participants

Honorary Chairman
BEL Davignon, Etienne Vice Chairman, Suez-Tractebel
 
DEU Ackermann, Josef Chairman of the Management Board and the Group Executive Committee, Deutsche Bank AG
GBR Agius, Marcus Chairman, Barclays Bank PLC
ESP Alierta, César Chairman and CEO, Telefónica
INT Almunia, Joaquín Commissioner, European Commission
USA Altman, Roger C. Chairman, Evercore Partners Inc.
USA Arrison, Sonia Author and policy analyst
SWE Bäckström, Urban Director General, Confederation of Swedish Enterprise
PRT Balsemão, Francisco Pinto Chairman and CEO, IMPRESA, S.G.P.S.; Former Prime Minister
ITA Bernabè, Franco CEO, Telecom Italia S.p.A.
SWE Bildt, Carl Minister of Foreign Affairs
FIN Blåfield, Antti Senior Editorial Writer, Helsingin Sanomat
ESP Botín, Ana P. Executive Chairman, Banesto
NOR Brandtzæg, Svein Richard CEO, Norsk Hydro ASA
AUT Bronner, Oscar Publisher and Editor, Der Standard
TUR Çakir, Ruşen Journalist
CAN Campbell, Gordon Premier of British Columbia
ESP Carvajal Urquijo, Jaime Managing Director, Advent International
FRA Castries, Henri de Chairman of the Management Board and CEO, AXA
ESP Cebrián, Juan Luis CEO, PRISA
ESP Cisneros, Gustavo A. Chairman and CEO, Cisneros Group of Companies
CAN Clark, W. Edmund President and CEO, TD Bank Financial Group
USA Collins, Timothy C. Senior Managing Director and CEO, Ripplewood Holdings, LLC
ITA Conti, Fulvio CEO and General Manager, Enel SpA
GRC David, George A. Chairman, Coca-Cola H.B.C. S.A.
DNK Eldrup, Anders CEO, DONG Energy
ITA Elkann, John Chairman, Fiat S.p.A.
DEU Enders, Thomas CEO, Airbus SAS
ESP Entrecanales, José M. Chairman, Acciona
DNK Federspiel, Ulrik Vice President Global Affairs, Haldor Topsøe A/S
USA Feldstein, Martin S. George F. Baker Professor of Economics, Harvard University
USA Ferguson, Niall Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History, Harvard University
AUT Fischer, Heinz Federal President
IRL Gallagher, Paul Attorney General
USA Gates, William H. Co-chair, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Chairman, Microsoft Corporation
USA Gordon, Philip H. Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs
USA Graham, Donald E. Chairman and CEO, The Washington Post Company
INT Gucht, Karel de Commissioner, European Commission
TUR Gürel, Z. Damla Special Adviser to the President on EU Affairs
NLD Halberstadt, Victor Professor of Economics, Leiden University; Former Honorary Secretary General of Bilderberg Meetings
USA Holbrooke, Richard C. Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan
NLD Hommen, Jan H.M. Chairman, ING Group
USA Hormats, Robert D. Under Secretary for Economic, Energy and Agricultural Affairs
BEL Huyghebaert, Jan Chairman of the Board of Directors, KBC Group
USA Johnson, James A. Vice Chairman, Perseus, LLC
FIN Katainen, Jyrki Minister of Finance
USA Keane, John M. Senior Partner, SCP Partners
GBR Kerr, John Member, House of Lords; Deputy Chairman, Royal Dutch Shell plc.
USA Kissinger, Henry A. Chairman, Kissinger Associates, Inc.
USA Kleinfeld, Klaus Chairman and CEO, Alcoa
TUR Koç, Mustafa V. Chairman, Koç Holding A.Ş.
USA Kravis, Henry R. Founding Partner, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.
USA Kravis, Marie-Josée Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute, Inc.
INT Kroes, Neelie Commissioner, European Commission
USA Lander, Eric S. President and Director, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT
FRA Lauvergeon, Anne Chairman of the Executive Board, AREVA
ESP León Gross, Bernardino Secretary General, Office of the Prime Minister
DEU Löscher, Peter Chairman of the Board of Management, Siemens AG
NOR Magnus, Birger Chairman, Storebrand ASA
CAN Mansbridge, Peter Chief Correspondent, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
USA Mathews, Jessica T. President, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
CAN McKenna, Frank Deputy Chair, TD Bank Financial Group
GBR Micklethwait, John Editor-in-Chief, The Economist
FRA Montbrial, Thierry de President, French Institute for International Relations
ITA Monti, Mario President, Universita Commerciale Luigi Bocconi
INT Moyo, Dambisa F. Economist and Author
USA Mundie, Craig J. Chief Research and Strategy Officer, Microsoft Corporation
NOR Myklebust, Egil Former Chairman of the Board of Directors SAS, Norsk Hydro ASA
USA Naím, Moisés Editor-in-Chief, Foreign Policy
NLD Netherlands, H.M. the Queen of the  
ESP Nin Génova, Juan María President and CEO, La Caixa
DNK Nyrup Rasmussen, Poul Former Prime Minister
GBR Oldham, John National Clinical Lead for Quality and Productivity
FIN Ollila, Jorma Chairman, Royal Dutch Shell plc
USA Orszag, Peter R. Director, Office of Management and Budget
TUR Özilhan, Tuncay Chairman, Anadolu Group
ITA Padoa-Schioppa, Tommaso Former Minister of Finance; President of Notre Europe
GRC Papaconstantinou, George Minister of Finance
USA Parker, Sean Managing Partner, Founders Fund
USA Pearl, Frank H. Chairman and CEO, Perseus, LLC
USA Perle, Richard N. Resident Fellow, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
ESP Polanco, Ignacio Chairman, Grupo PRISA
CAN Prichard, J. Robert S. President and CEO, Metrolinx
FRA Ramanantsoa, Bernard Dean, HEC Paris Group
PRT Rangel, Paulo Member, European Parliament
CAN Reisman, Heather M. Chair and CEO, Indigo Books & Music Inc.
SWE Renström, Lars President and CEO, Alfa Laval
NLD Rinnooy Kan, Alexander H.G. Chairman, Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands (SER)
ITA Rocca, Gianfelice Chairman, Techint
ESP Rodriguez Inciarte, Matías Executive Vice Chairman, Grupo Santander
USA Rose, Charlie Producer, Rose Communications
USA Rubin, Robert E. Co-Chairman, Council on Foreign Relations; Former Secretary of the Treasury
TUR Sabanci Dinçer, Suzan Chairman, Akbank
ITA Scaroni, Paolo CEO, Eni S.p.A.
USA Schmidt, Eric CEO and Chairman of the Board, Google
AUT Scholten, Rudolf Member of the Board of Executive Directors, Oesterreichische Kontrollbank AG
DEU Scholz, Olaf Vice Chairman, SPD
INT Sheeran, Josette Executive Director, United Nations World Food Programme
INT Solana Madariaga, Javier Former Secretary General, Council of the European Union
ESP Spain, H.M. the Queen of  
USA Steinberg, James B. Deputy Secretary of State
INT Stigson, Björn President, World Business Council for Sustainable Development
USA Summers, Lawrence H. Director, National Economic Council
IRL Sutherland, Peter D. Chairman, Goldman Sachs International
GBR Taylor, J. Martin Chairman, Syngenta International AG
PRT Teixeira dos Santos, Fernando Minister of State and Finance
USA Thiel, Peter A. President, Clarium Capital Management, LLC
GRC Tsoukalis, Loukas President, ELIAMEP
INT Tumpel-Gugerell, Gertrude Member of the Executive Board, European Central Bank
USA Varney, Christine A. Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust
CHE Vasella, Daniel L. Chairman, Novartis AG
USA Volcker, Paul A. Chairman, Economic Recovery Advisory Board
CHE Voser, Peter CEO, Royal Dutch Shell plc
FIN Wahlroos, Björn Chairman, Sampo plc
CHE Waldvogel, Francis A. Chairman, Novartis Venture Fund
SWE Wallenberg, Jacob Chairman, Investor AB
NLD Wellink, Nout President, De Nederlandsche Bank
USA West, F.J. Bing Author
GBR Williams, Shirley Member, House of Lords
USA Wolfensohn, James D. Chairman, Wolfensohn & Company, LLC
ESP Zapatero, José Luis Rodríguez Prime Minister
DEU Zetsche, Dieter Chairman, Daimler AG
INT Zoellick, Robert B. President, The World Bank Group
Rapporteurs
GBR Bredow, Vendeline von Business Correspondent, The Economist
GBR Wooldridge, Adrian D. Business Correspondent, The Economist

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